Pecaut, P., J. Philouze A sha-pat line obtained by natural mutation. A   mutant   line,   Montfavet   191,   has   been obtained   by   natural   mutation   in   our   breeding material from a line with normal stamens and producing non-parthenocarpic fruits. Montfavet 191 possesses the flower characteristic shown by the sha (short   anthers)   mutant   described   by   Soressi   (TGC   20:59)   and   reveals   an   ability   to   develop parthenocarpic  fruits  similar  to  the  pat  (parthenocarpic)  mutant  described  by  Soressi  (TGC  25:22). Montfavet 191 was crossed with the sha-pat material (stock 2524) provided by Soressi. The   F1 hybrid had  flowers with abnormal stamens and developed parthenocarpic fruits. So Montfavet 191 is sha-pat. We have, however, a few remarks to make: 1.  Our  obtaining  sha  and  pat  mutations  simultaneously  in  the  same  line  is  surprising.  We  were unsuccessful  in  obtaining  the  short  anther  and  parthenocarpic  characters  in  separate  lines,  as Soressi was able to do (TGC 25:22). 2. Expression of the short anther character is variable according to genotype and environmental conditions.  For example  the stamens  of  the 2524  stock  are  shorter  than  those of Montfavet 191.  The  stamen  length  of  a  sha-pat  plant  may  vary  during  the  flowering  period,  the  stamens sometimes taking on a quasi normal appearance. 3. Our sha-pat material and Soressi's sha-pat stock 2524 show an important amount of female sterility. It is very difficult to obtain seeds from both materials either by self-pollination or by pollination with  sha+  pat  pollen,  even  in  favorable  environmental  conditions.  However, sha-pat  pollen  has normal fertilizing power. Philouze, J. Percentage of selfing. . .(seep. 13.) Philouze,  J.,  and  B.  Maisonneuve  Heredity  of the natural ability to set parthenocarpic fruits in a German line. Line    75/59    received    from    Reimann-Philipp (West  Germany)  shows  a  natural  ability  to  set normal-looking parthenocarpic fruits. We screened parthenocarpic and non-partheno- carpic plants in the same manner as in the study of Severianin (TGC 28:12). The   F1   hybrids   between   75/59   and   two   non-parthenocarpic   varieties,   Moneymaker   and Apedice,  were  studied.  The  fruits  of  the  two  F1  hybrids  were  not  parthenocarpic.  The parthenocarpic character of 75/59 is therefore recessive. Allelism tests were made with two different parthenocarpic lines:      Montfavet 191 (France) is sha-pat (TGC 28:12) and  Severianin (USSR) is pat-2 (TGC 28:12). The  fruits  of  the  two  F1  hybrids  75/59  x  Severianin  and  75/59  x  Montfavet  191  were  not parthenocarpic, so neither the pat allele nor the pat-2 allele is responsible for parthenocarpy in 75/59. At present we are studying offspring from the Moneymaker x 75/59 cross to determine how many loci are responsible for parthenocarpy in 75/59. In favorable environmental conditions female fertility in 75/59 is quite normal, as in the case of Severianin, and its pollen has normal fertilizing power. Philouze, J., and B. Maisonneuve Heredity of the natural   ability   to   set   parthenocarpic fruits in the soviet variety Severianin. The  soviet  variety  Severianin  was  bred  by  N. Solovjova    at    the    Gribovskja    Experimental Vegetable Selection Station near Moscow. This variety  is  remarkable  for  its  natural  ability  to set normal-looking parthenocarpic fruits. In our study we screened parthenocarpic and non-parthenocarpic plants by emasculating flowers before the pollen was mature and by omitting pollination. Under these conditions the fruits of the parthenocarpic plants developed, whereas no fruit was borne by the nonparthenocarpic plants. We   studied   the   F1   hybrids   between   Severianin   and   two   non-parthenocarpic   varieties, Moneymaker  and  Apedice  (one  of  our  breeding  lines).  The  fruits  of  the  two  F1  hybrids  were  not parthenocarpic. The parthenocarpic character of Severianin is therefore recessive.

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